Encyclopedia » Politics & Economics

Political Parties or the Art of Getting the Elected Away From Their Voters

An essential institution of liberal regimes are political parties, which are born and develop at the same time as elections and representation. At first they appear as electoral commissions in charge of raising funds for the campaign and obtaining important patronages for its candidate. It’s also observed the birth, in the assemblies, of parliamentary groups of deputies of the same tendency for a common action, and that in a natural way produces the federation of their basic commissions, which originate the parties. Read More

The Constitution, the Law of Laws

The Constitutional laws, or State Constitution, are those that constitute, institute or define the political organization of the State. These are Fundamental Laws of superior rank that limit the action of power. The leaders who establish the rules or who contribute to establish them can get rid of them more easily. When it is applied and it is a true Constitution-law, its application is not as rigorous as that of the Civil Code or that of the Penal Code. Read More

The Power and the Law of the Strongest

A distinction must be made between might and Power; the first rests solely on the possibility of coercing another; the second is also based on the coerced person's belief that the coercion is legitimate.

Power must have legitimacy, usually legal or traditional in origin. Only those who have the capacity to exercise power can hold it legitimately. Power is primarily a function of intelligence and secondarily a function of the will. Who commands needs to have intelligence, purity, competence, will, character, leadership conditions. Every weak and unskillful power creates disorder and anarchy; its ineffectiveness demonstrates its real lack of authority. Read More

Encyclopedia, a Historic Milestone

From the darkness of the Ancien Régime to the luminous freedom of «being able to do everything that does not harm another».

In the mid-eighteenth century, the French people guided the spiritual forces of humanity, because they converted certain ideas, the basis of the modern political world, into the common heritage of all men and made them advance, more than any other country, along the paths of civil liberty. Read More