Encyclopedia » Politics & Economics

Stand Up and Think

Or «that effort to think and make people think», as Julio Anguita said, who already warned us more than two decades ago that «the control of power is perfect. A control of power that is no longer based on force, on coercion (…). It is based on a much more terrible, harsher control: the control of the mind». Read More

JFK: A Sitting Duck in Dallas

In the puzzle about the magnicide of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, there is a piece that seems to be clearly guessed within that ocean of conspiracy theories that have been surrounding the tragic event since that fateful November 22, 1963 in Dealey Plaza in Dallas: the incomprehensible lack of protection that accompanied the presidential vehicle during its journey from the airport to the heart of the Texan city, turning its occupants, and specifically the President, into a sitting duck -easy target-. Read More

The Constitution, the Law of Laws

The Constitutional laws, or State Constitution, are those that constitute, institute or define the political organization of the State. These are Fundamental Laws of superior rank that limit the action of power. The leaders who establish the rules or who contribute to establish them can get rid of them more easily. When it is applied and it is a true Constitution-law, its application is not as rigorous as that of the Civil Code or that of the Penal Code. Read More

Political Parties or the Art of Getting the Elected Away From Their Voters

An essential institution of liberal regimes are political parties, which are born and develop at the same time as elections and representation. At first they appear as electoral commissions in charge of raising funds for the campaign and obtaining important patronages for its candidate. It’s also observed the birth, in the assemblies, of parliamentary groups of deputies of the same tendency for a common action, and that in a natural way produces the federation of their basic commissions, which originate the parties. Read More

The Power and the Law of the Strongest

A distinction must be made between might and Power; the first rests solely on the possibility of coercing another; the second is also based on the coerced person's belief that the coercion is legitimate.

Power must have legitimacy, usually legal or traditional in origin. Only those who have the capacity to exercise power can hold it legitimately. Power is primarily a function of intelligence and secondarily a function of the will. Who commands needs to have intelligence, purity, competence, will, character, leadership conditions. Every weak and unskillful power creates disorder and anarchy; its ineffectiveness demonstrates its real lack of authority. Read More

Encyclopedia, a Historic Milestone

From the darkness of the Ancien Régime to the luminous freedom of «being able to do everything that does not harm another».

In the mid-eighteenth century, the French people guided the spiritual forces of humanity, because they converted certain ideas, the basis of the modern political world, into the common heritage of all men and made them advance, more than any other country, along the paths of civil liberty. Read More

The Candidate Hope

The following short story is about a mysterious girl. A girl turned into a lady who is presented to us with an angelic, neat and spotless face… but that actually hides a mysterious personality. Her name: Democracy; her fate: a disappointment. Read More